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Diving Medicine

Epilepsy/Seizures and Diving

Diving Medicine

By Dr. David Sawatzky

A seizure is a sudden surge in electrical activity of the brain that alters how an individual feels or acts for a short period of time.  In a classic ‘grand mal’ seizure a person looses consciousness, all of their muscles contract for up to a minute, they jerk for a few more minutes followed by a period of complete relaxation of the muscles.  During this period they often loose control of their bladder and wet themselves.  They regain consciousness a few minutes later but are typically very confused for the next 20 to 30 minutes.

Sometimes the surge in electrical activity of the brain is confined to a small area and the person experiences less severe symptoms.  In a ‘petit mal’ seizure the person loses consciousness for only a few seconds and then carries on as if nothing has happened (more common in children).  A psychomotor seizure is associated with a series of repetitive bizarre movements which serve no useful purpose and which the person cannot remember afterwards.  Autonomic seizures involve unusual periods of flushing, pallor, raised blood pressure, rapid heart rate, etc.  There are literally hundreds of other presentations that seizures can have and in these cases, fitness to dive will depend on the exact nature of the person’s seizures.

Some fortunate individuals develop relatively mild symptoms before they progress to a full-blown seizure.  This may or may not allow them to get to a ‘safe place’ before the main seizure occurs.  Unfortunately, grand mal seizures without warning are quite common and the rest of this discussion will be limited to individuals with this problem.

Causes of Seizures

All seizures (loss of consciousness, convulsions) are not due to epilepsy.  A partial list includes high core temperature (febrile convulsions), fainting, oxygen toxicity, hypoxia, alcohol abuse, etc.  If a cause can be determined, the diving significance will depend on the cause (can it be avoided or removed).  Seizures due to a high fever before the age of five are NOT associated with an increased risk of seizures later in life and are NOT a contraindication to diving.

Epilepsy is a seizure disorder in which the person has had at least two seizures and is at increased risk of having more.  Epilepsy can be related to a family history (genetic problem), a previous significant brain injury, infection or bleeding (concussion and loss of consciousness for less than five minutes are not associated with epilepsy), tumor, stroke, or Alzheimer’s disease (late in the illness), cocaine abuse, etc., but more than 50 per cent of the time there is no known cause.   With a significant brain injury, the seizures often do not start until several months after the injury.  If a father has epilepsy, the risk in their children is slightly increased.  If a mother has epilepsy, the risk in their children is doubled.  If both parents have epilepsy the risk is further increased to around 5 per cent.  A diagnosis of epilepsy does not imply anything about the cause or the seriousness of the person’s seizures.

Seizures are very common and up to 5 per cent of people will experience at least one convulsion in their life.  Approximately 50 per cent of these people will experience a second seizure (usually within six months) and at least 80 per cent of people who have had two seizures will have a third.  Your risk of having a seizure declines the longer it has been since your last seizure and after five years your risk is approximately the same as someone who has never had a seizure.

The Odds

From 0.5 to 2.0{c383baab7bef8067e8c9786a45d8006c492489841a98fe37723e304bb1ddd030} of people will develop epilepsy at some time during their life (two or more seizures).  Epilepsy can develop at any age but most frequently starts before the age of 10 and after the age of 55.   Approximately 50 per cent of children with epilepsy ‘grow out of it’ and to not have an increased risk of seizures later in life.  Only 70 per cent of people with epilepsy will be able to prevent further seizures with medications and many will experience side-effects from these medications.  Up to 30 per cent of people with epilepsy will not have their seizures prevented with currently available medications (as of 2006).

Factors that are known to increase the probability of a person having a seizure include not taking your seizure preventing drugs (duh), lack of sleep, illness, severe psychological stress, alcohol abuse, cocaine, ecstasy and other recreational drugs, vitamin and mineral deficiencies, the menstrual cycle, and over the counter or prescription meds or supplements that decrease the effectiveness of seizure preventing drugs.  Bright flashing lights (helicopter blades, trees beside a highway, light on water) can also trigger a seizure in sensitive people.

After a person has been on anticonvulsive drugs for one to two years without experiencing a seizure, their physician will sometimes suggest stopping the medications.  However, approximately 30 per cent of children and up to 65 per cent of adults will experience a seizure during the two years after they stop their medications.

Most provinces and states in Canada and the USA have laws about people with epilepsy and driving.  Some require physicians to report anyone with epilepsy to the department of transport.  Most of these require a person with epilepsy to be seizure free, on or off drugs, for a period of time from six months to two years before they can hold a driver’s license.  This restriction also usually applies when drugs are stopped so many people continue to take the medications to maintain their driver’s license.  Even with these restrictions, people with epilepsy have twice as many motor vehicle accidents as the rest of the population.  People with epilepsy are usually not allowed to hold a commercial driving license.  In some parts of Europe people with epilepsy are banned from driving a car for life.

Diving Risks

It should be fairly obvious that anyone with a risk of suddenly loosing consciousness should not dive but there are other concerns as well.  If a diver experiences a seizure underwater, they will initially be holding their breath.  If they are positively buoyant or a well-meaning buddy takes them to the surface while they are not breathing, they will suffer pulmonary barotrauma and arterial gas embolism and most likely die.  After the phase of muscle contractions, they usually relax and start to breathe but they are still unconscious.  Aspiration of seawater and drowning are highly probable during this stage.  When they eventually regain consciousness, they will be very confused and almost certainly will not be able to take care of themselves underwater, nor to make the correct decisions to survive.  In addition, anyone who experiences a seizure while diving puts their buddy at risk when the buddy tries to help them.

In addition, virtually every drug used to prevent seizures in someone with epilepsy has a sedative effect on the brain.  Narcosis also has a sedative effect on the brain and these effects will almost certainly combine.  Therefore a person with epilepsy might experience a level of narcosis expected at 130 fsw (40 msw) at only 65 fsw (20 msw).  In addition, the effect of pressure on the drugs used to treat epilepsy is completely unknown.  They might become toxic or they might loose their effect when the person is diving.  Therefore, an excellent argument can be made that no one who takes drugs to control their epilepsy should dive.  When a person with epilepsy stops their medications, they have a very high risk (up to 65 per cent) of having a seizure in the next two years so they should definitely not dive during this time period.  Their risk of having a seizure continues to decline for up to five years after the last seizure or after they stop medications and therefore some agencies recommend they not dive for five years.

There are many factors in diving that might cause a person to have a seizure.  Flickering lights, hypo or hyperventilation and sensory deprivation all increase the risk of a seizure.  Increased partial pressures of oxygen are known to increase the risk of seizures and oxygen seizures are often used in animal research to simulate epilepsy.  The U.K. Sport Diving Medical Committee states that people with epilepsy are not more likely to convulse due to elevated partial pressures of oxygen while diving but they do not reference this statement.  I could find no data to support this statement and intuitively it is highly unlikely to be true.  Therefore it seems most probable to me that an individual who has a seizure disorder will be even more likely to suffer a seizure if they are exposed to elevated partial pressures of oxygen.

Even if no one with epilepsy dived, some individuals will experience their first seizure while diving.  The best advice I can find for their dive buddy is to attempt to hold the person’s regulator in their mouth and maintain them at a constant depth while they are seizing.  After they relax they will start to breathe.  Continue to hold their regulator in their mouth, keep their head in a neutral position and ascend slowly to the surface.  They will need to be removed from the water, have their gear removed, and kept in a recovery position (on their side) until they regain consciousness.  Medical help should be sought as quickly as possible.

The general medical opinion is that anyone with epilepsy should not dive.  My personal position is that a person who has been seizure free and off all medication for more than two years is a reasonable risk for recreational diving even though their risk of having another seizure will be slightly increased for up to five years.  They should not dive nitrox, nor should they dive deeper than 100 fsw (30 msw) until five years have passed.  A mature person who has been seizure free for at least two years and who is experiencing no side effects from their medications is a reasonable risk to dive recreationally to a maximum depth of 50 fsw (15 msw).  They should only dive in warm, clear water and also should not dive nitrox.

An excellent source of general information on epilepsy is

30 Comments Leave A Reply

30 Responses to “Epilepsy/Seizures and Diving”

  1. Rob

    Great article- I have been drug and seizure free for over 20 years, I have my dive certification. Are there any other recommendations or suggestions for someone in my position wishing to take up the sport again?

    • Lee

      I was a sport diver from 1979 until 2000, I really enjoyed diving and miss it. Unfortunately I suffered 3 grand mal seizures, 1994, 2000 and last 2005, and still taking anti seizure medication and decided not to come off the medication. I can tell you from first hand experience they are scary as hell and never want another one. I didn’t need anyone tell me my diving days are over and my advice to anyone who has suffered a seizure is not to dive. The risk of having a scary event ,seizure underwater at any depth is not worth the pleasure of diving. I so wish I could suit up and dive in the water but won’t, now I walk the beach.

  2. Conner

    I’m 20, had a very small seizure where I didn’t urinate myself or anything. I have over 100 logged dives and 8 years of experience with no problems. How long should I wait? No meds either.

  3. Bendil

    Conner, I’m in the same case as you, have you find informations?

    • Kathleen Richards

      I have monthly seizures and left arm stiffenings due to my menstrual cycle. This prevents me from driving and scuba diving. My last menstrual cycle was 10/06/2018. I am a 31 year old Autistic young lady who is very heavy at 306 pounds. My seizures and left arm stiffenings started 02/08/2010.

  4. Pratik

    Hello Everyone, Thank you for the information provided above. I had a seizure two years ago and I have been on medications. I am advised to stop my medications after an year from now. I am willing to take an Open Water Dive Course. Is it advisable to do so? I have not had any other convulsion/seizure since then.

  5. LJ

    I’ve dived the last 3 years, without issues, admittedly though I never told anyone about the epilepsy, if I had I wouldn’t have been allowed to dive.
    Life is to live, live it, it’s full of risks, but you could get run over by a bus tomorrow have fun whilst you can.

    • david smith

      Me too.
      I started diving when I was 17 and I’m now 42 years old and still diving.
      I was diagnosed with epilepsy in my late 20s when I had a major seizure at night. I’d also been having (very mild) minor seizures since I was 18 and had not realised what they were.
      For the last 15 years I have been on nedication (Lamotrigine) and have been seizure free. I once tried to come off the medication but the minor seizures returned. Hence I will remain on medication, no doubt for the rest of my life.
      BSAC’s stipulation that you need to be drug-free for at least 3 years is ridiculous. The medication keeps my epilepsy fully under control and I have no problems at all.
      I have one close friend who I dive with regularly and he knows I have epilepsy, but agrees with my belief that I am fine. We regularly dive long/deep dives in British waters. However, I don’t tell any other divers that I have the condition. I know I’m safe and don’t like the fact that I have to cover it up.
      I believe I should be allowed to disclose my condition to other divers and it is there decision as to whether they want to dive with me.

      • Merritt Richards

        I would love to have more information concerning your issues. I feel I am in the same circumstances as you, and your condition is describe as the same as mine, However, I am in a argument with my doctor to be allowed to dive. I have done some research and some say its ok for small dives and others say do not dive. If you can give me some more information about your experience that I can use to show my doctor it would be safe,

        Thank You,

        • LJ

          Hi Merritt,
          I’ve tried to get signed off by my doctor also, but unfortunately they read what they see on the Internet as being the 100{c383baab7bef8067e8c9786a45d8006c492489841a98fe37723e304bb1ddd030} be all and end all as they don’t have a clue.
          I actually went to my doc in the last week to see if they would sign me off as I would like to go the official route and get qualified.
          But was told that he wouldn’t sign me off as I am being treated for epilepsy, so I said did he bother to read my medical notes, I haven’t had a fit for 23 years now and this was mild at best. He still refused.

          I have actually contacted the epilepsy organisation this week to see what they can do to help if anything.

          • DRK

            A fit really?

            I take meds, diagnosed when I was a kid. But I do not believe it should be allowed to control my life. My choice in my opinion about how I spend my time. I want to learn how to dive. Now if I can just the husband on board.

    • Maya

      I was scrolling through this article and these comments and this one caught my eye because it is the mindset that I have when looking at future decisions based on epilepsy. I was wondering if you have had any seisures while diving in the past few years since you wrote this?

  6. Zeyad

    Hi my name is Zeyad I’m 16 years old I want to take up diving it’s a 5 day course I will enjoy I have seisurs since I was 8 and I take medication (tegratol 200mg) but since I hit 12 years old I stopped having seisurs but I still take medication 4 pills per day so what shall I do shall I proceed or shall I not .

  7. cliff

    I’ve had nocturnal epilepsy for 10 years now, my medication seems to do very little and I have a seizure approx every 2 months. I’ve been diving for over 25 years now and logged over 400 dives, I dive with a few close buddies and there all aware of my epilepsy and they agree with me, life’s to short, if I done everything by the book I would be at home doing nothing!!!

    • Alice

      Hello Cliff! Thank you, for sharing! I have nocturnal epilepsy as well. I was diagnosed about 7 years ago in my early 20s. I take a very small dose of medication but also have nocturnal seizures about every 2-4 months. It’s been a life long dream of mine to dive. I tried to dive 3 years ago, but once the instructor saw my checked box, he said I couldn’t dive. Would you recommend just lying about the condition? I am planning on diving in a month and my friend knows about my condition. I was told that any medication you take, once you are under water the dose increases. Have you ever felt any side effects? Do you have any further recommendations for me or my friend?

      • Mark

        If you are still having seizures every couple of months then I would say you and your neurologist hasn’t found the right medication or the right dosage yet. Possibly. You may never stop having them. But that’s about the rate I had them for several years but he slowly increased the dosaged until the seizures became less frequnent and finally stopped altogether. I have never noticed any side effects from pressure on medication at all, I’m really not sure I buy that explanation. But I would not recommend diving if you have seizures at all though. I didn’t dive until I stopped having them at all for several years, even though I only had them while sleeping. Ultimately it’s up to you. You are lying when you fill out the form and say you DON’T have epilepsy and are NOT taking medication so you need to be okay with that. And I was already certified too. You can take a fun dive without being certified just to try it out, without going to deep, I think it’s 30 feet, in a reletively confined area. It’s still very cool if you’ve never done it before. Diving is amazing and very addicting. That’s why I’m so adamant that they evolve and adapt to modern medicine and change the rules. As they are now is ridiculous.

        • Ettiene

          Hi guys,
          I was diagnosed with epilepsy when I was 15. My neurologist put me on medication and my last seizure happened when I was 18. I am 31 now and have been seizure free with medication for 13 years now. My neurologist gave me the go ahead for recreational diving and I’m planning on doing my certification early next year.

  8. Trina Davidson

    My 12 year old daughter sustained a frontal lobe haematoma at the end of May 2015 in a horse riding accident. She is on medication for seizures as a preventative measure which is the norm after a TBI. Hope to finish medication end of December 2015. We have a place in the Seychelles and she is keen to do a dive course. Should we wait till she is older or a length of time of medication?

  9. Gary

    I’am 66 and had petit mal seizures when I was 8 that went away when I was 10. When I turned 60 I had two more seizures(petit mal) dr. put me on Valproic acid since then I have had no seizures or side effects from drug.I stopped diving(had over 500 dives previous to that) do you think it would e safe to do shallow dives(40ft.) in warm water.regards Gary~

  10. Ryan

    Hi all, so I’ve been reading through your comments and it seems the Dr’s all have the same consensus that if you’ve EVER had a seizure your not allowed to dive! I’m 31 and was diagnosed at age 11 with epilepsy, I haven’t had a seizure since 2011 and that was due to too much alcohol and not enough sleep, my question to you guys, can you be sued if caught lying during/after doing a dive course?

  11. lily

    My name is matt lily I live in Canada

    I had seizure disorder that started when I was 21, I’m now 36. I took medicines for over 15 years, I had grand mal seizures I’ve tried many anticonvulsants and had never been able to stop the seizures. Surgery was not an option. My seizures worsened as I aged. Yet, my life has been dramatically impacted by seizure For years, I went from Doctor to many Neurologists to an Epileptologist trying to find a cause and cure for my seizures. I tried every medication and dosage imaginable but nothing seemed to work. I read a testimony about someone on the website, on who her daughter was cured from seizure through herbal medicine. I contacted the doctor, and used his herbal medicine, my seizure became a story. Today, I am totally free from seizures after years of struggle.

    • Annie

      lily, i have epilepsy since i’m 12 and now 28 and i’m really interesting about the natural medecine? Is it that natural medecine that makes you epilepsy free? I’m very curious about it! Because i’ve tried 4 differents medication and never been control totally and this year my epilepsy worsen so would be really happy to try something and maybe be epilepsy free as well!!


  12. Sharon

    Dear Dr. Sawatsky,

    I hope you still check this board.

    I found this article while doing research for my son. He is 18-years-old and had a seizure disorder starting at 5-months of age due to a bout with pneumococcal meningitis. He was routinely given EEGs to see if weaning off of seizure medications was an option. At age 6, he had a “normal” EEG and was weaned off of seizure medication. He has had no seizures since. In 2016, he was cleared by his PCP to scuba dive with the restriction of no dives greater than 60 feet and he received his Open Water Certification. Unfortunately, the 60 ft restriction stops him from getting his Advanced Open Water diving certification. Does he have a lower threshold for seizures at depth because of his previous seizure history?

    Thank you for your consideration.



  13. Isaac Gesser

    Hi all,
    There is a common misconception that all forms of epilepsy have grand mall seizures or are convulsive in nature. Fact is, the most common form of epilepsy is temporal lobe epilepsy. This form of epilepsy has no convulsive episodes, just confusion and loss of memory. This form of epilepsy usually goes undiagnosed and affects up to 10{c383baab7bef8067e8c9786a45d8006c492489841a98fe37723e304bb1ddd030} of the population. You may have it but don’t know.
    Now, this will cause confusion if untreated and could possibly cause a diver an increased risk of diving injury, however I haven’t seen many cases in all my diving experience.
    In any case, if you find your dive buddy acting a bit weird like they don’t remember the dive plan, this much not be nitrogen necrosis but this form of epilepsy. Just a warning for those concerned.

  14. Chris Bardon

    I was recently diagnosed with late onset epilepsy (I’m 42) and prior 10yrs was a regular diver. I’ve only had 3 seizures and now on meds and no further issues. (18months). Should I consider resuming diving??

  15. charly

    my last seizure was about 20 years ago, but opted not to stop my medications due to the “extreme” sports I do.
    I have nearly 300 logged dives, I never thought it was something dangerous.
    I consulted multiple neurologists, they all told me to go live my life and do the things I like.

    I’m surprised with this article.

  16. Ricky Howe

    I have been certified for recreational diving since 1995. Have Grandmal seizures and dive with a full face mask, I find it peaceful and relaxing no stress and no gravity pulling on me swimming with sharks are even relaxing. I would like to try nitrox how would that affect me.

    • Jerry Cq

      I’m looking into a FFM for my son who recently was diagnosed with absence seizures. I think the use of a FFM eliminates much of the risk of diving with this class of epilepsy, as long as the seizures are controlled with his medications. I don’t really see a huge risk here given the medication success. He will always make sure that his dive buddies are aware of his condition, and we can take care of him in the event of a LOC, despite him being ‘petit mal’ free for years.

  17. Cam Brodman

    I suffered a severe TBI due to a car accident when I was a in college. Before that, I was an avid diver with an advanced certification and loved being under water more than being on the surface and was studying to be a marine biologist. I still have the desire to dive even though it has been 37 years since my accident. The only thing that has kept me from putting myself at risk of losing my life is my family that I love. Diving was my perfect world but I learned to not be selfish and put my love for what I have now above my dreams of what was. Think about it.

  18. Mark P

    I started having gran mal seizures out of the blue in 2008. I continued having them for about 8 years but only in my sleep until my doctors finally found the right meds and the right dosage. Then I just had simple partial seizures (sort of like deja vous except a little more intense) for another few years but otherwise was able to function perfectly fine. Now I no longer have any seizure activity at all, altough I still take medication. I have dived in the last few years, unfortunately I just have to check the wrong box on the form at the dive shop. I got certified prior to having seizures. I feel fine and have no side affects of the seizures or meds. I’m perfectly capable of diving. I feel if I’m able to drive a car then I should be able to dive. If my meds are controlling the epilepsy and I haven’t had any seizures in years I don’t see the problem. I really think this issue is way overblown and is really unfair. It would be different if someone were having seizures regually or sporadically or randomlly, then diving would be highly irresponsible, as would driving or any number of other activities. In my case, until they evolve the rules to modern medicine, I guess I will be forced to continue to lie when filling out a form so I can dive. I think it’s BS that I have to. I drive in heavy traffic every day. That, you would think, would be considered more dangerous to more people. But it isn’t because my epilepsy IS UNDER CONTROL.


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